The directionally selective ganglion cell receives excitatoryinput from the left, and inhibitory input from the right. Remarkably, we found that the excitatory and inhibitory inputs are, themselves, directionally selective. The origins of directional selectivity lie in the starburst amacrine cells that have their own directional properties and are mutually inhibitory
Directional Selectivity Circuit

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Cartoon of the retina showing layering of neurons

Directional Selectivity

Feedback and Crossover inhibition

Multiple Representations of the Visual Scene

Regions of space/time frequency

Space-time rasters for ON and OFF cells

Patching a neuron in a retinal slice

Targeting Retinal Neuron Subregions with Arficial Rhodopsins