Selected Publications


Understanding and improving photo-control of ion channels in nociceptors with azobenzene photo-switches.
Mourot, A., Herold, C., Kienzler, M.A., Kramer, R.H. 
British Journal of Pharmacology 
doi: 10.1111/bph.13923.

Photopharmacological control of bipolar cells restores visual function in blind mice.
Laprell, L., Tochitsky, I., Kaur, K., Manookin, M.B., Stein, M., Barber, D.M., Schon, C., Michalakis, S., Biel, M., Kramer, R.H., Sumser, M.P., Trauner, D., Van Gelder, R.N.
The Journal of Clinical Investigation 127(7):2598-2611 

Restoring visual function to the blind retina with a potent, safe and long-lasting photoswitch
Tochitsky, I., Trautman, J., Gallerani N., and Kramer, R.H. 
Scientific Reports 7:45487 



Serotonin modulates spike probability in the axon initial segment through HCN channels. 
Ko, K.W., Rasband, M.N., Meseguer, V., Kramer, R.H., and Golding, N.L. 
Nature Neuroscience 19:826-34. 

How azobenzene photoswitches resture visual responses to the blind retina
Tochitsky, I., Helft, Z., Meseguer, V., Fletcher, R.B., Vessey, K.A., Telias, M., Denlinger, B., Malis, J., and Kramer, R.H.
Neuron 90(1):100-113



Optopharmacological tools for restoring visual function in degenerative retinal diseases. 
Tochitsky, I., and Kramer, R.H. 
Current Opinion in Neurobiology 34C:74-78. 

Controlled release of photoswitch drugs by PLGA microspheres 
Groynom, R., Shoffstall, E., Wu, L.S., Kramer, R.H., , and Lavik, E.B. 
Journal of Drug Targeting 23:710-715. 

Lateral inhibition in the retina: The case of the missing neurotransmitter. 
Kramer, R.H. and Davenport, C. 
PLoS Biology 13:e1002322. 

A comprehensive optogenetic pharmacology toolkit for in vivo control of GABAA receptors and synaptic inhibition. 
Lin, W-C, Tsai, MC, Davenport, C, Smith, C, Veit, J, Wilson, N, Adesnik, H, and Kramer, RH 
Neuron 88:879-891. 



Restoring visual function to blind mice with a photoswitch that exploits electrophysiological remodeling of retinal ganglion cells. 
Tochitsky I, Polosukhina A, Degtyar VE, Gallerani N, Smith CM, Friedman A, Van Gelder RN, Trauner D, Kaufer D, Kramer RH. 
Neuron. 2014 Feb 19;81(4):800-13. 

Imaging an optogenetic pH sensor reveals that protons mediate lateral inhibition in the retina. 
Wang TM, Holzhausen LC, Kramer RH. 
Nat Neurosci. 2014 Feb;17(2):262-8.



Optogenetic pharmacology for control of native neuronal signaling proteins.
Kramer RH, Mourot A, Adesnik H.
Nat Neurosci. 
2013 Jul;16(7):816-23.

Light at the end of the channel: optical manipulation of intrinsic neuronal excitability with chemical photoswitches. 
Mourot A, Tochitsky I, Kramer RH. 
Front Mol Neurosci. 2013 Mar 21;6:5

Photochromic potassium channel blockers: design and electrophysiological characterization. 
Mourot A, Fehrentz T, Kramer RH. 
Methods Mol Biol. 2013;995:89-105. 



Photochemical Restoration of Visual Responses in Blind Mice
Polosukhina,A.; Litt, J.; Tochitsky, I.; Nemargut, J.; Sychev, Y.; De Kouchkovsky, I.; Huang, T.; Borges, K.; Trauner,D.; Van Gelder, R.N. Kramer, R.H. 
Neuron, Volume 75, Issue 2, 271-282, 2012

Rab3a Mediates Vesicle Delivery at Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapses 
Tian, M.; Xu, C.S.; Montpetit, R.; Kramer, R.H. 
Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 32, Issue 20, 6931-6, 2012

Rapid optical control of nociception with an ion-channel photoswitch
Mourot, A.; Fehrentz, T.; Le Feuvre, Y.; Smith, C.; Herold, C.; Dalkara, D.; Nagy, F.; Trauner, D. & Kramer R.H. 
Nature Methods, 9, 396-402, 2012

Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors 
Tochitsky, I.; Banghart, M.R.; Mourot, A.; Yao, J.Z.; Gaub, B.; Kramer, R.H.; & Trauner,D. 
Nature Chemistry, 4, 105–111, 2012



A positive feedback synapse from retinal horizontal cells to cone photoreceptors 
Jackman, S.L., Babai, N., Chambers, J.J., Thoreson, W.B. & Kramer, R.H. 
PLoS Biol , Vol. 9(5), e1001057, 2011

Optogenetic photochemical control of designer K+ channels in mammalian neurons
Fortin, D.L., Dunn, T.W., Fedorchak, A., Allen, D., Montpetit, R., Banghart, M.R., Trauner, D., Adelman, J.P. & Kramer, R.H. 
J Neurophysiol, Vol. 106(1), pp. 488-496, 2011

Engineering light-regulated ion channels
Fortin, D.L., Dunn, T.W. & Kramer, R.H. 
Cold Spring Harb Protoc, Vol. 2011(6),579-585, 2011

Release from the cone ribbon synapse under bright light conditions can be controlled by the opening of only a few Ca2+ channels
Bartoletti, T.M., Jackman, S.L., Babai, N., Mercer, A.J., Kramer, R.H. & Thoreson, W.B. 
J Neurophysiol 106, 2922-2935, 2011 



New photochemical tools for controlling neuronal activity
Kramer, R.H., Fortin, D.L. & Trauner, D. 
Curr Opin Neurobiol, Vol. 19(5), 544-552, 2009

Role of the synaptic ribbon in transmitting the cone light response
Kramer, R.H., Fortin, D.L. & Trauner, D. 
Nature Neuroscience, Vol. 12(3), 303-310, 2009

Photochromic blockers of voltage-gated potassium channels
Banghart, M.R., Mourot, A., Fortin, D.L., Yao, J.Z., Kramer, R.H. & Trauner, D. 
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl , Vol. 48(48), 9097-9101, 2009



Light-activated ion channels for remote control of neural activity
Chambers, J.J. & Kramer, R.H. 
Methods Cell Biol, Vol. 90, 217-232, 2008 

Photochemical control of endogenous ion channels and cellular excitability
Fortin, D.L., Banghart, M.R., Dunn, T.W., Borges, K., Wagenaar, D.A., Gaudry, Q., Karakossian, M.H., Otis, T.S., Kristan, W.B., Trauner, D. & Kramer, R.H. 
Nat Methods, Vol. 5(4), 331-338, 2008 

Light regulation of Ca2+ in the cone photoreceptor synaptic terminal

Choi, S.-Y., Jackman, S., Thoreson, W.B. & Kramer, R.H. 
Vis Neurosci, Vol. 25(5-6), 693-700, 2008



Synaptic Ca2+ in darkness is lower in rods than cones, causing slower tonic release of vesicles

Sheng, Z., Choi, S.-Y., Dharia, A., Li, J., Sterling, P. & Kramer, R.H. 
J Neurosci, Vol. 27(19), 5033-5042,2007 

Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor
Szobota, S., Gorostiza, P., Bene, F.D., Wyart, C., Fortin, D.L., Kolstad, K.D., Tulyathan, O., Volgraf, M., Numano, R., Aaron, H.L., Scott, E.K., Kramer, R.H., Flannery, J., Baier, H., Trauner, D. & Isacoff, E.Y. 
Neuron , Vol. 54(4), 535-545, 2007 

Staples, tape measures, and bungee cords: a variety of bifunctional reagents for understanding and controlling ion channels
Mourot, A. & Kramer, R.H. 
ACS Chem Biol, Vol. 2(7), 451-453, 2007



Allosteric control of an ionotropic glutamate receptor with an optical switch
Volgraf, M., Gorostiza, P., Numano, R., Kramer, R.H., Isacoff, E.Y. & Trauner, D. 
Nat Chem Biol, Vol. 2(1), 47-52, 2006 

Light-induced depolarization of neurons using a modified Shaker K(+) channel and a molecular photoswitch
Chambers, J.J., Banghart, M.R., Trauner, D. & Kramer, R.H. 
J Neurophysiol, Vol. 96(5), 2792-2796, 2006



Photochemical tools for remote control of ion channels in excitable cells
Kramer, R.H., Chambers, J.J. & Trauner, D. 
Nat Chem Biol, Vol. 1(7), 360-365, 2005 

Encoding light intensity by the cone photoreceptor synapse
Choi, S.-Y., Borghuis, B.G., Borghuis, B., Rea, R., Levitan, E.S., Sterling, P. & Kramer, R.H. 
Neuron, Vol. 48(4), 555-562, 2005 

Imaging light-modulated release of synaptic vesicles in the intact retina: retinal physiology at the dawn of the post-electrode era

Choi, S.-Y., Sheng, Z. & Kramer, R.H. 
Vision Res, Vol. 45(28), 3487-3495, 2005 

Flashy science: controlling neural function with light

Thompson, S.M., Kao, J.P.Y., Kramer, R.H., Poskanzer, K.E., Silver, R.A., Digregorio, D. & Wang, S.S.-H. 
J Neurosci, Vol. 25(45), 10358-10365, 2005



Metabolic modulation of potassium channels
Trauner, D. & Kramer, R.H. 
Sci STKE, Vol. 2004(233), pe22, 2004 

Streamlined synaptic vesicle cycle in cone photoreceptor terminals
Rea, R., Li, J., Dharia, A., Levitan, E.S., Sterling, P. & Kramer, R.H. 
Neuron, Vol. 41(5), 755-766,2004 

Light-activated ion channels for remote control of neuronal firing
Banghart, M., Borges, K., Isacoff, E., Trauner, D. & Kramer, R.H. 
Nat Neurosci, Vol. 7(12), 1381-1386, 2004