Selected Publications


Serotonin modulates spike probability in the axon initial segment through hyperpolarization and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels.
Ko, KW, Meseguer, V, Kramer, RH, and Golding, NL
Nature Neuroscience 19:826-34.

How azobenzene photoswitches bestow degeneration-dependent light sensitivity on the blind retina. (in press)
Tochitsky, I, Meseguer, V, Helft, Z, Fletcher, RB, Polosukhina, A, Gallerani, N, and Kramer, RH

Optical control of dendritic excitability with an intracellular photoswitch compound. Nature Communications (submitted).
Fedorchak, A, Bonnan, A, Zhang, Y, Frick A, and Kramer, RH
Nature Communications

Restoring visual function to the blind retina with a potent, safe and long-lasting azobenzene photoswitch. (submitted)
Tochitsky, I, Trautman, J, Gallerani N, and Kramer, RH
Science Translational Medicine


Optopharmacological tools for restoring visual function in degenerative retinal diseases.
Tochitsky, I., and Kramer, R.H.
Current Opinion in Neurobiology 34C:74-78.

Controlled release of photoswitch drugs by PLGA microspheres
Groynom, R., Shoffstall, E., Wu, L.S., Kramer, R.H., , and Lavik, E.B.
Journal of Drug Targeting 23:710-715.

Lateral inhibition in the retina: The case of the missing neurotransmitter.
Kramer, R.H. and Davenport, C.
PLoS Biology 13:e1002322.

A comprehensive optogenetic pharmacology toolkit for in vivo control of GABAA receptors and synaptic inhibition.
Lin, W-C, Tsai, MC, Davenport, C, Smith, C, Veit, J, Wilson, N, Adesnik, H, and Kramer, RH
Neuron 88:879-891.


Restoring visual function to blind mice with a photoswitch that exploits electrophysiological remodeling of retinal ganglion cells.
Tochitsky I, Polosukhina A, Degtyar VE, Gallerani N, Smith CM, Friedman A, Van Gelder RN, Trauner D, Kaufer D, Kramer RH.
Neuron. 2014 Feb 19;81(4):800-13.

Imaging an optogenetic pH sensor reveals that protons mediate lateral inhibition in the retina.
Wang TM, Holzhausen LC, Kramer RH.
Nat Neurosci. 2014 Feb;17(2):262-8.


Optogenetic pharmacology for control of native neuronal signaling proteins.
Kramer RH, Mourot A, Adesnik H.
Nat Neurosci.
2013 Jul;16(7):816-23.

Light at the end of the channel: optical manipulation of intrinsic neuronal excitability with chemical photoswitches.
Mourot A, Tochitsky I, Kramer RH.
Front Mol Neurosci. 2013 Mar 21;6:5

Photochromic potassium channel blockers: design and electrophysiological characterization.
Mourot A, Fehrentz T, Kramer RH.
Methods Mol Biol. 2013;995:89-105.


Photochemical Restoration of Visual Responses in Blind Mice
Polosukhina,A.; Litt, J.; Tochitsky, I.; Nemargut, J.; Sychev, Y.; De Kouchkovsky, I.; Huang, T.; Borges, K.; Trauner,D.; Van Gelder, R.N. Kramer, R.H.
Neuron, Volume 75, Issue 2, 271-282, 2012

Rab3a Mediates Vesicle Delivery at Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapses
Tian, M.; Xu, C.S.; Montpetit, R.; Kramer, R.H.
Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 32, Issue 20, 6931-6, 2012

Rapid optical control of nociception with an ion-channel photoswitch
Mourot, A.; Fehrentz, T.; Le Feuvre, Y.; Smith, C.; Herold, C.; Dalkara, D.; Nagy, F.; Trauner, D. & Kramer R.H.
Nature Methods, 9, 396-402, 2012

Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
Tochitsky, I.; Banghart, M.R.; Mourot, A.; Yao, J.Z.; Gaub, B.; Kramer, R.H.; & Trauner,D.
Nature Chemistry, 4, 105–111, 2012


A positive feedback synapse from retinal horizontal cells to cone photoreceptors
Jackman, S.L., Babai, N., Chambers, J.J., Thoreson, W.B. & Kramer, R.H.
PLoS Biol , Vol. 9(5), e1001057, 2011

Optogenetic photochemical control of designer K+ channels in mammalian neurons
Fortin, D.L., Dunn, T.W., Fedorchak, A., Allen, D., Montpetit, R., Banghart, M.R., Trauner, D., Adelman, J.P. & Kramer, R.H.
J Neurophysiol, Vol. 106(1), pp. 488-496, 2011

Engineering light-regulated ion channels
Fortin, D.L., Dunn, T.W. & Kramer, R.H.
Cold Spring Harb Protoc, Vol. 2011(6),579-585, 2011

Release from the cone ribbon synapse under bright light conditions can be controlled by the opening of only a few Ca2+ channels
Bartoletti, T.M., Jackman, S.L., Babai, N., Mercer, A.J., Kramer, R.H. & Thoreson, W.B.
J Neurophysiol 106, 2922-2935, 2011


New photochemical tools for controlling neuronal activity
Kramer, R.H., Fortin, D.L. & Trauner, D.
Curr Opin Neurobiol, Vol. 19(5), 544-552, 2009

Role of the synaptic ribbon in transmitting the cone light response Jackman, S.L., Choi, S.-Y., Thoreson, W.B., Rabl, K., Bartoletti, T.M. & Kramer, R.H.
Nat Neurosci, Vol. 12(3), 303-310, 2009

Photochromic blockers of voltage-gated potassium channels
Banghart, M.R., Mourot, A., Fortin, D.L., Yao, J.Z., Kramer, R.H. & Trauner, D.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl , Vol. 48(48), 9097-9101, 2009


Light-activated ion channels for remote control of neural activity

Chambers, J.J. & Kramer, R.H.
Methods Cell Biol, Vol. 90, 217-232, 2008

Photochemical control of endogenous ion channels and cellular excitability

Fortin, D.L., Banghart, M.R., Dunn, T.W., Borges, K., Wagenaar, D.A., Gaudry, Q., Karakossian, M.H., Otis, T.S., Kristan, W.B., Trauner, D. & Kramer, R.H.
Nat Methods, Vol. 5(4), 331-338, 2008

Light regulation of Ca2+ in the cone photoreceptor synaptic terminal

Choi, S.-Y., Jackman, S., Thoreson, W.B. & Kramer, R.H.
Vis Neurosci, Vol. 25(5-6), 693-700, 2008


Synaptic Ca2+ in darkness is lower in rods than cones, causing slower tonic release of vesicles

Sheng, Z., Choi, S.-Y., Dharia, A., Li, J., Sterling, P. & Kramer, R.H.
J Neurosci, Vol. 27(19), 5033-5042,2007

Remote control of neuronal activity with a light-gated glutamate receptor

Szobota, S., Gorostiza, P., Bene, F.D., Wyart, C., Fortin, D.L., Kolstad, K.D., Tulyathan, O., Volgraf, M., Numano, R., Aaron, H.L., Scott, E.K., Kramer, R.H., Flannery, J., Baier, H., Trauner, D. & Isacoff, E.Y.
Neuron , Vol. 54(4), 535-545, 2007

Staples, tape measures, and bungee cords: a variety of bifunctional reagents for understanding and controlling ion channels

Mourot, A. & Kramer, R.H.
ACS Chem Biol, Vol. 2(7), 451-453, 2007


Allosteric control of an ionotropic glutamate receptor with an optical switch

Volgraf, M., Gorostiza, P., Numano, R., Kramer, R.H., Isacoff, E.Y. & Trauner, D.
Nat Chem Biol, Vol. 2(1), 47-52, 2006

Light-induced depolarization of neurons using a modified Shaker K(+) channel and a molecular photoswitch

Chambers, J.J., Banghart, M.R., Trauner, D. & Kramer, R.H.
J Neurophysiol, Vol. 96(5), 2792-2796, 2006


Photochemical tools for remote control of ion channels in excitable cells

Kramer, R.H., Chambers, J.J. & Trauner, D.
Nat Chem Biol, Vol. 1(7), 360-365, 2005

Encoding light intensity by the cone photoreceptor synapse

Choi, S.-Y., Borghuis, B.G., Borghuis, B., Rea, R., Levitan, E.S., Sterling, P. & Kramer, R.H.
Neuron, Vol. 48(4), 555-562, 2005

Imaging light-modulated release of synaptic vesicles in the intact retina: retinal physiology at the dawn of the post-electrode era

Choi, S.-Y., Sheng, Z. & Kramer, R.H.
Vision Res, Vol. 45(28), 3487-3495, 2005

Flashy science: controlling neural function with light

Thompson, S.M., Kao, J.P.Y., Kramer, R.H., Poskanzer, K.E., Silver, R.A., Digregorio, D. & Wang, S.S.-H.
J Neurosci, Vol. 25(45), 10358-10365, 2005


Metabolic modulation of potassium channels
Trauner, D. & Kramer, R.H.
Sci STKE, Vol. 2004(233), pe22, 2004

Streamlined synaptic vesicle cycle in cone photoreceptor terminals

Rea, R., Li, J., Dharia, A., Levitan, E.S., Sterling, P. & Kramer, R.H.
Neuron, Vol. 41(5), 755-766,2004

Light-activated ion channels for remote control of neuronal firing
Banghart, M., Borges, K., Isacoff, E., Trauner, D. & Kramer, R.H.
Nat Neurosci, Vol. 7(12), 1381-1386, 2004