Midterm 1 - Spring 2001

Format of Midterm 1 (exam duration = 50 minutes)

I (40 points) Multiple choice questions, 2 points each

1. Some of the greatest advances in human civilization in the 20th century have been:
A. the discovery of antibiotics
B. the discovery of DNA
C. the marked lengthening of the average life span
D. the improvement of public health
E. all of the above

2. At present, the longest living human, has lived the following number of years:
A. 122
B. 114
C. 130
D. 150
E. none of the above

3. Currently, the major cause of death in old age, in the US is:
A. cardiovascular diseases: heart disease and stroke
B. cancer
C. pneumonia
D. diabetes
E. dementia

4. By "rectangularization" of the survivorship curve, we mean:
A. compression of morbidity
B. expansion of morbidity
C. worse performance of the ADLs
D. better performance of the IADLs
E. none of the above

5. There are some ethnic/gender differences in the causes of death in the US population EXCEPT:
A. Alzheimer¹s dementia is more frequent in women than men irrespective of ethnicity
B. in men, diabetes is more frequent in American Indians and Alaska natives than whites
C. in men, hypertension is more frequent in African Americans than in all other ethnic groups
D. cancer is more frequent in whites than in all other groups
E. the frequency of heart disease is the same across all ethnic groups

6. Which of the following is DIRECTLY CORRELATED with longevity:
A. Basal Metabolic Rate
B. Stress
C. Length of Growth Period
D. Reproductive Fecundity
E. All of the Above

7. Which of the following can induce Cellular Senescence:
A. Replicative Senescence
B. DNA Damage
C. Oncogene Expression
D. Super-Mitogenic Signals
E. All of the Above

8. Which of the following is NOT a source of free radicals:
A. p450 enzyme
B. Macrophages and Neutrophils
C. Alloxan
D. Lipid Peroxidation
E. None of the Above

9. Which of the following is generally true for sex differences after 65 years of age:
A. men live longer but have more physical trauma injuries than women
B. women live longer but have greater dependency (more disabilities) than men
C. women live longer and have fewer disabilities than men
D. there is no difference in life expectancy but women have fewer disabilities
E. none of the above

10. How have the major causes of death in the U.S. changed over the past century:
A. shift from accidents and natural disasters (e.g. floods, earthquakes, etc.) toward microbial diseases
B. the major causes of death have remained unchanged
C. shift from microbial diseases and cancer toward natural disasters and food-borne illnesses
D. shift from microbial diseases toward cardiovascular disease and cancer
E. shift from cancer and accidents toward microbial diseases

11. What happens when telomere length is critically shortened?
A. cells undergo irreversible arrest of cell proliferation
B. they show altered function
C. alteration in function is universal
D alteration in function is cell-type specific
E. all of the above

12. All the following statements regarding telomerase are true, EXCEPT:
A. somatic cells have telomerase activity throughout their lives because of their high activity levels
B. germline cells have telomerase activity because of the importance of retaining all their genetic information
C. telomerase is expressed in 80% of tumor cells
D. telomerase is expressed in some stem cells but it is highly regulated
E. telomerase overcomes telomere shortening

13. How are anti-oxidants believed to be helpful to our bodies?
A. they antagonistically bind to oxygen molecules, thus preventing aerobic pathways
B. they enhance free-radical formation, thus increasing the efficiency of cellular processes
C. they "quench" the reactivity of reactive oxygen species, thus preventing their detrimental interactions with other cellular activities
D. they complex with vitamins in our bodies to produce reactive oxygen species, which are then used to enhance aerobic pathways
E. none of the above

14. Ageism
A. has the same meaning as senescence
B. is a term indicating discrimination or prejudice against the elderly
C. has the same meaning as aging
D. none of the above
E. all of the above

15. In elderly humans, "successful aging" is characterized by:
A. presence of illnesses but no decline in function
B. absence of illnesses and absence of decline in function
C. decline in function but no illnesses
D. changes in chronological age but not physiological age
E. none of the above

16. Functional competence and, inversely, degree of disability in the elderly may be measured by:
A. Counting the number of activities of day living that the old person can perform
B. Counting the number of instrumental activities of day living that the old person can perform
C Evaluating the degree of performance in both activities and the absence of disabilities
D. Estimating the degree of functional independence that allows the old person not to be institutionalized in a nursing home
E. all of the above

17. The number of centenarians, in the last century as compared to the previous centuries has:
A. remained unchanged worldwide
B. increased in developed countries
C. increased in developing countries
D. decreased in developing countries
E. decreased in developed countries

18. Mice with cells that do not senesce die young of cancer because:
A. Cellular senescence represents an important tumor suppression mechanism
B. tumor cells may be considered immortal
C. tumor cells continue to divide and cause death of the host organism
D. the two most important tumor suppressor pathways (p53 & pRB) are missing
E. all of the above

19. Disease in the elderly has the following characteristics, EXCEPT:
A. symptoms are vague and atypical
B. diseases are chronic as opposed to acute
C. diseases are acute as opposed to chronic
D diseases often affect many systems simultaneously
E. diseases may induce responses to treatment different from those of young & adult persons

20. Aging and disuse have many similarities; in both cases the following responses occur EXCEPT:
A. maximum oxygen consumption decreases
B. cardiac output decreases
C. blood pressure increases
D. in all cases, only young people are able to benefit from exercise
E . in all cases both young and old people are able to benefit from exercise.

II , ( 20 points) True/False Questions, 2 points each

21.___F___ While average life span continues to increase, maximum lifespan remains fixed

22.___T___ The expression of telomerase prevents cellular senescence

23.___F___ Werner¹s Syndrome is a form of accelerated aging with an onset at infancy.

24.___F___ Vitamin E is hydrophilic and is recycled within the cell

25.___T___ Telomeres are essential for chromosome stability

26.___T___The telomere hypothesis of aging hinges on the cellular/replicative senescence hypothesis of aging.

27. __T___Epidemiology is a branch of medical science that deals with the incidence, distribution and control (including prevention) of disease of a human population

28.___T___Demography deals with the statistical study of human populations , especially with reference to size and density, distribution and vital statistics.

29.___T___Individuals aging "successfully" are those with no disease and no or slight decrease in physiological performance

30___F___ Accumulation of amyloid protein occurs only in the neurons

III. Short Answer Questions

31. ( 12 points) -Compare and Contrast: ( 2 points each)

Necrosis vs. Apoptosis (compare and contrast at least 3 characteristics)





32. (16 points). With respect to replicative senescence:

33. (12 points). Define the concept of Antagonistic Pleiotropy (6 pts)

and give two examples of this evolutionary mechanism (6 pts)